All posts by Bruce Krager 556

Hello! I'm Bruce Koh, 16, an artist developing skills to do comics. Open for commissions and hire. My main content is on: Instagram: Youtube: Deviantart: I'm also on Reddit:

Why People in the Middle Ages Weren’t Flat Earthers

In the majority of  public education, it’s taught that people in the Middle Ages (European Christians specifically) were flat earthers. This is a common notion that is taught in our day; based on years of false belief in fictional stories made up about Christopher Columbus. What we’re going to be looking at in this essay, is the false notions put out by various individuals that managed to sway peoples perceptions on flat earthers during the time of the Middle Ages.

The evidence that shows that the people of the middle ages believed the earth was a sphere is so evident, that it would be preposterous to think otherwise. There are many myths about the middle ages, but this is the biggest one. The flat earth view of the middle ages is one of the most believed hoaxes in history, but it’s also the most debunked and refuted hoaxes today.

There are two main individuals cited as the founders of this myth. Washington Irving and Antoine Jean Letronne (1787-1848). Letronne was determined to portray Christopher Columbus as a hero. Letronne’s book mentions a fictional council that lectured Columbus about why the earth was flat. The story portrayed Columbus as the fighting hero against the seemingly vast majority of flat earthers. Another figure was W.E.H. Lecky, a well known historian and critic of the the church in the 19th century. He claimed that Christians of Columbus’ time were too obsessed with the teachings of Aristotle, and therefore Christians believed in a flat earth causing them to make fun of and mock Columbus. However, Aristotle’s teachings state the earth is a sphere, and Aristotle taught about a spherical earth. The majority of scolars Andrew Dickson repeated the myth in his books. Lactantious was a christian heretic, who believed Satan was made by God as an essential evil. Another one of these figures was Cosmas, who drew a picture of what he thought the universe looked like.

The flat earth myth of the middle ages was eventually believed by the majority, due to the vast amount of authors and critics who published forms of media which painted Christian Europeans as flat earthers. It became easier for most people to give into social conformity rather than research.

King Ferdinand, Queen Isabella, and the Centralization of Spain

Before the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, Spain was much like early Italy. Spain wasn’t one country, but consisted of multiple separate kingdoms that were overall known as the region of Spain. The reign of Ferdinand and Isabella changed this.

Despite both of them being second cousins decended from King John the First of Castile, they would get married in 1479AD. This caused both kingdoms to merge into one kingdom known as Spain. This marriage was known as the “De Facto Unification of Spain”. This would spark he beginning of the centralization of both these kingdoms of Spain. Aragon and Castile were eventually combined into one province ruled under one monarchy of a new King and Queen.

The church experienced a decrease in power over government, but receaved more conveniences such as private court systems and various tax exemptions. The people and government of Aragon and Castile were very much united against the muslim Moors, who were invading surrounding regions. A common enemy made the two kingdoms join excessively well, and crusaders were eventually sent to fight the Moors.

In 1481AD, Spain launched its first attack against the invading Islamic Moors known as the “Siege of Granada”. Spain was well united, and managed to defeat the Moors and take Granada, which was a great accomplishment considering Spain had never lead an attack in 10 years.

After the battle, a deal was made between the Spanish and the Moors. The muslims were allowed to keep their mosques, religious practices, and faith, but Granada would remain under the rule of Spain ultimately. And Spain would officially be known as 2 kingdoms until he “Nueva Planta” decrees of 1707AD-1716AD.

Louis XI

“Louis the XI”, aka “Louis the Prudent”, was the king of France from 1461AD to 1483AD. But he had various nicknames given to him based off his actions and characteristics. “Louis the Prudent”, cause of his sometimes extreme decisions, “The Cunning”, and “Universal Spider Monkey”, based off Louis’ high interest in subjects like conspiracies, theories, and diplomatic matters.

Louis was born on July 3, 1423AD in France, Bourges. He succeeded his father,  Charles VII in 1461AD. Substantial argument and revolt occurred between Louis and his father,King Charles VII, known as the Praguerie in 1440AD. Louis’ father banished him shortly after from the kingdom, leaving Louis to only managing the province in Dauphine. When Louis married Charlotte of Savoy, the daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy, Charles sent in his army to force Louis to his will, however Louis had already fled to Burgundy, and teamed up with Philip the Good who was Charles VII’s greatest enemy.

In 1461, Charles died, and Louis left Burgundy and claimed the throne. In 1475, Louis was in conflict with Charles the Bold who, so Louis signed the Treaty of Picquigny with Edward IV of England, which separated Charles from his allies, and ended the 100 Years War.

Louis XI died on August 30, 1483. He is remembered for having a very unusual reign consisting of many conflicts that stick out compared to most.


High Renaissance Art

The High Renaissance took place in 1495 and approximately ended in 1527 after the Sack of Rome. It lasted only 40 years. The best works of art were deemed to have been made during that time. The vast majority of the most highly regarded works in the High Renaissance were made in various states of Italy, especially Rome. 

These are two major artists from the High Renaissance. Michelangelo and Leonardo Da Vinci.  

Michelangelo is known as a sculptor, and he considered himself a sculptor. But many recalled him primarily for his painting skills. He worked on the 17ft tall Statue of David, and the tomb of Pope Julius the Second. His paintings consisted of non-realistic backgrounds, his focus on man and the human form was prioritized in his works. Many of his projects remained unfinished, and that would remain a recurrence throughout his life. Michael Angelo lived a long working life which lasted 70 years.

Leonardo Da Vinci was an architect, engineer, scientist, painter, inventor, mathematician, and a scientist. He was known for being good at many crafting tasks. His most famous painting is the Mona Lisa.




Outstanding Blogger Award

The creators original post is here.

These are the rules:

  1. Provide a link to the original creators post.
  2.  Answer the questions given.
  3.  Create seven unique questions.
  4.  Nominate 10 bloggers. Make sure they’re aware of their nomination, don’t nominate the person who nominated you, and don’t nominate the original creator.
  5.  At the end of 2020, every blog that has a link back to the creators will be entered to win the 2020 Outstanding Blogger Award.

My Answers to the Questions given to me:

  1. Would you rather go without meat or dairy? Dairy.      Meat is superior in taste and nutrients, especially beef.
  2. What kind of music do you normally listen to?      Game soundtracks from games like Titanfall, Cod MW, Halo, and Portal 2.
  3. Is there a specific word that sums up your blog?      Promotional, cause growing my art content on YouTube and Instagram is part of my business.
  4. What is a post on your blog that you want as many people as possible to see?  Drawing Ex SF Green Beret Ronintactics -Modern Warfare
  5. On a scale of one to ten, how would you rate the device you are writing this award post on?      I’d rate my PC 9 out of 10. I do homework, watch videos, digital color my drawings, and game on it. It’s heavy duty.


My Questions:

  1.  What would be your preferred gun in a self defense/disaster situation?
  2. What is your favorite videogame genre? (For example: FPS, RPG, MMO, ect.)
  3. Beef or chicken?
  4.  PC or console? Why?
  5.  Zombie Apocalypse or Civil War?
  6.  Green Berets or Navy Seals?
  7.  America or the rest of the world?


My nominations:





(4 Cause I don’t know 10 bloggers)

John Wycliff

John Wycliff was an important figure in the history of Christianity in terms of prereformation.

He was born in 1328 and died in 1384. He was known as a controversial figure among the Roman Catholic Church, due to his seemingly rebellious statements and claims he aimed at the catholic priesthood.

Wycliff was a priest, theologian, English Scolastic Philosopher, biblical translator, and a professor at the University of Oxford, but most of all, he was known as an early reformer in the 14th century. He is also considered the forerunner of the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century where figures like Martin Luther emerged. Wycliff often taught things that didn’t align with what the Catholic Church believed, and this caused a disdain toward Wycliff among the catholic heirarchy.

He spoke against the many common practices of the catholic church, such as Auricular Confession, Indulgences, church land ownership, and more. Wycliff strongly believed that God ultimately decides whether a person goes to heaven or hell after they die, and that there’s nothing you can do to change it. The catholic priesthood on the other hand, saw themselves as wielding partial authority in the judgment. Wycliff also spoke against Auricular Confession, which was a common practise in the catholic church where people would recieve forgiveness after confessing their sins to a priest. And for indulgences, Wycliff made the case that no amount of money can buy you forgiveness from God, and that priests have no authority to enact such practices according to the word of God.


The Black Death

The Black Death was the most deadly disease in recorded history, but along with it came various other phenomena that heavily impacted 14th century Europe.

Most cases show that the black death killed over 300 million – 475 million people, and 60% of European population. The origin of the disease was from Fleas and rats that transmitted the disease to humans by physical contact or biting. 

There were also massive economic effects on Europe. What was left of workers inflated their wages to excessively high amounts. Lower classic peasants had an opportunity to demand higher payment due to their being less workers. This meant that any business or local organizations which required workers to operate were forced to pay their employees very high amounts. This is because when there’s a shortage of workers, what remains of them become very valuable, hence their wages go up. So each employee that worked during the Black Death certainly cashed in. This wage inflation would not last long however, soon the government enforced restrictions and laws on wages and prices. This forced wages to return to how it was in 1346, before the black death happened. The people became angry at not only the price manipulation by the government, but also the heavy taxes put in place that were going toward wars that couldn’t be won. This resentment eventually boiled into the “Great Revolt”.

The Great Revolt was an uproar among the people against the government. In response, King Richard the Second of England, executed 110 protestors and arrested many more using military force.

There was also a large mental impact. Many people had the impression they would die the next day. This caused an excessive amount of people committed to seeking whatever bodily pleasures they could find. Chaos effected even the parts of Europe where the plague didn’t exist. Many however went the opposite way, and sought penance. There were individuals who even beat themselves up in public as penance.

Personally, the black plague is a reminder that during a pandemic, governments will take the opportunity to enforce tyranny. And that large parts of the population will resort to crime due to the fact that many people are not disciplined or morally calibrated in the word of God.


Drawing Ronintactics – Modern Warfare

This is a drawing I did of Ronintactics, a former Special Forces Green Beret who they added into COD Modern Warfare as a playable operator in the game. If you dunno who Ronintactics is, he’s a veteran, and is now a famous firearms instructor/self defence trainer on Youtube.



Can’t help but be proud of this drawing for the American Warrior and hero he is. It was also an honor to have this picture actually reposted by the real Ronintactics on Instagram.

I made a drawing video all about it on my youtube channel. Check it out if you wanna: My Youtube Channel


3659858-screen shot 2020-04-23 at 10.01.27 am

Here are more COD themed drawings I’ve done previously:



2 Types of Polymer

In my latest Ron Paul Science 9th Grade lesson (Lesson 129), polymer was the main subject. We learned that a polymer is substance who’s molecular structure is built from many different or very similar materials. The materials used are also synthetic organic. There are two types of polymers, and both are differentiated based on how each is manufactured. This essay will be lay out both definitions of the two types of polymers.

Addition Polymer

Addition Polymer is a polymer that is made by simply linking monomers without the creation of other products. This process is repeated however many times needed to forge the required substance.

Condensation Polymer

Condensation Polymer is made differently than Addition Polymer. A condensation reaction takes place in order to create condensation polymer, excess materials like water are formed in the process. This event of creating two materials is called “co-production”.

The Just War Theory

The Just War Theory was a developed theory as to what determined a just or morally right war.

The Just War Theory was written in the 16th to mid 17th century known as the “Classical Period”, and was developed by various philosophers throughout history, the majority of them being Christian philosophers.

In the document of The Just War Theory, the philosophers developed reasons that define a just war. For example, the Just War Theory states that a war can only be waged by a proper high authority, the war must be a last resort, chance of victory in a war must be likely, and civilian women and children should not be harmed. These are only a few examples mentioned in the theory, but the establishment of this document marked the beginning of a benchmark used for all future wars to come.

God’s law was applied and used throughout the Just War Theory, and served a great amount of influence in its development. The philosophical developments of Thomas Aquinas, Hugo Grotius, Augustine of Hippo,  Aristotle, and others contributed to the search for what was just in war time. The theory would also be modified later after its first time being published for newly devised moral reasons affiliated with war.

European Events

The 12th Century Renaissance was a revival of interest in writing, speciafically in Latin. Greek, Arabic, and other historical texts were translated to Latin so the west could read it. There was also a revival in the enforcement of roman law in western monarchs. Most of the west sought to wipe away the old feudalism systems from the itme of the barbarian.

The next major historical event was the rise of universities (1088AD) in the west. The first official university was established in Italy. It was not primarily for learning math and grammar, but debating on religious philosophy.

Thomas Aquinas, 1270 AD, was an Italian Dominician frier, catholic priest, and philosopher. He is known for writing one of the most impressive texts in philosophical history. His writings combat many arguments that were made against the existence of God. His works were very popular in its time, and various high positions in the church were offered to Aquinias, he turned all of them down.